Volume No. : 2
Issue No. : 1
Year : 2011
ISSN Print : 0976-2973
ISSN Online : 2321-581X
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Rajdeep Chowdhury* and Saikat Ghosh
Department of Computer Application, JIS College of Engineering, Block ‘A’, Phase III, Kalyani, Nadia-741235, West Bengal, India
Until modern times, Cryptography exclusively referred to encryption, which is coined as the process of converting ordinary information (Plain Text) into unintelligible gibberish (Cipher Text). Decryption has been coined as the reverse process of moving from the unintelligible Cipher Text back to the original Plain Text.
A Cipher is an algorithm couplet that creates both the encryption and the decryption pseudo codes. The detailed operation of a cipher is controlled both by the algorithm and in each instance by a Key. This is a secret parameter (known ideally to the communicants) for a specific message exchange context. Keys are important, as ciphers without variable keys can be trivially broken with only the knowledge of the cipher used and are therefore useless (or even counter-productive) for most purpose.
Historically, ciphers were often used directly for encryption or decryption without additional procedures such as authentication or integrity checks.
In colloquial use, the term Code is often used to mean any method of encryption or concealment of meaning. However, in Cryptography, Code has a more specific and significant meaning. Code means the replacement of unit of Plain Text with a Code word. Codes are no longer used in serious cryptography except for such things as unit designations (Bronco Flight or Operation Overlord) as properly chosen ciphers are both practical and secure than even the best codes, along with being better adapted for computers too.
It is a normal practice for most of the individuals to use the terms Cryptography and Cryptology interchangeably, while for others (including US military) Cryptography is termed to refer specifically to the use and practice of cryptographic techniques and Cryptology to refer to the combined study of Cryptography and Cryptanalysis.
The study of characteristics of languages which have some application in Cryptography/Cryptology are frequency data, letter combinations, universal patterns, etc., and are stated as Crypto linguistics, in the most formal way.
Earlier forms of secret writing required little more than local pen and paper analogs, as most people could not read. Increased literacy and adequate literate opponents required actual Cryptography. The classical cipher types can be significantly classified into transposition cipher and substitution cipher. Simple versions of either offered little confidentiality from enterprising opponents, and still continues to do so. The modern study of symmetric-key ciphers relates mainly to the study of block ciphers and stream ciphers and their allied applications.
Data Encryption Standard (DES) and Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) are block cipher designs which have been designated as Cryptography standards by the US government. Many other block ciphers have been designed and released with considerable variation in quality.
One or more Cryptographic primitives are often used to develop a more complex algorithm, called a Cryptosystem, which are designed to provide particular functionality while guaranteeing certain security properties. Cryptosystems use the properties of the underlying Cryptographic primitives to support the system's security properties. In many cases, the Cryptosystem's structure involves back and forth communication among two or more parties in space (Viz., between the sender of a secure message and its intended receiver) or across time. Such Cryptosystems are sometimes referred as Cryptographic Protocols.
Keeping all these nuances and facets under consideration, Cyclic Cryptography ensures a whole new dimension to Cryptology with optimum security measures, privacy maintenance and proper decryption mechanism using generated key text.
The paper establishes via implementation the study of data encryption as well as data decryption, based on the proposed innovative concept of Cyclic Cryptography using the freshly devised Cyclograph, conjured up from the triplet [SF, RF, NF].
The algorithm has been devised keeping in mind all the three factors, namely; Shift Factor (SF), Rotation Factor (RF) and Navigation Factor (NF), thereby ensuring the righteous implementation of the Cyclograph and its allied characteristics.
The Cyclograph consists of a two-tier Dial mechanism, with the Inner Dial comprising of the alphabets A – M and the Outer Dial comprising of the alphabets N – Z, along with the two Navigation Factors [&,@] incorporated and allied with the Outer Dial.
Plain Text, Cipher Text, Cyclograph, Inner Dial, Outer Dial, Shift Factor (SF), Rotation Factor (RF) and Navigation Factor (NF).
Rajdeep Chowdhury, Saikat Ghosh. Study of Cryptology Based on Proposed Concept of Cyclic Cryptography Using Cyclograph. Research J. Engineering and Tech. 2(1): Jan.-Mar. 2011 page 17-20.