Performance Evaluation of Different Encryption Techniques
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, MLR Institute of Technology, Hyderabad, India
This paper deals the several kinds of image encryption and decryption strategies. In the advanced computerized world, the transmitting and storing of multimedia content is more. However, the security level of computerized data while transmitting is an enormous issue. The extensive literatures are collected related to the performance improvement of different encryption techniques are critically reviewed and presented in this paper. This review also depicts the basis of different parameters like imperceptibility, visual degradation, compression friendliness, speed etc.
Multimedia is the text, images, sound, graphics, animation and other media together to form an organic whole, to achieve a certain function. A two dimensional images is said to be digital image which as a finite set of digital values called image elements or pixels. In the present system, a video is considered as an important tool that can combine all categories of multimedia information like text, audio, static and moving images because video gives transferring the huge value of information in a time constrained environment. Likewise, as a result of modern developments in Information Technology innovation, the greater capacity of the high quality of digital contents is created from High Definition Television (HDTV) and Digital Video Disk (DVD). However, this progress is difficult due to the intellectual protection of video content . The need for techniques that to control access of the video content and by limiting the viewing rights, rights to recreate or duplicating rights.
Secure communication is described as an undertaking where the mystery information is shared between approved people and not yearning to outsiders. Hence, the individual starting the conveying the information and the individual getting the mystery information toward the end of correspondence requires a method for correspondence that is not defenseless to interference . Secure communication permits the source and destination to communicate with varying the degrees of certainty that the shared data are cannot capture by the third party. The technique that can secure the property against the unlawful distribution called Information hiding. The two main security systems to protect the digital information are Cryptography and Steganography. Cryptography is the process of transforming the digital contents into an imperceptible format. In this technique plain text is changed into ciphertext is called Encryption. A plain text refers to data that has not been scrambled, and ciphertext refers to data that has been encrypted. An encryption strategy is said to be good, it makes difficult to return back from ciphertext to plain text without a secret key. Using secret key, the receiver can decode the encrypted message to retrieve the original message. This process is said to be decrypted. Once the decryption operation has been performed effectively, the information is prepared and ready to access it.
In a stream cipher is another type of image encryption that is based on the method of symmetric encryption. An opposite to block where all the encryption techniques are performed once in a process, whether encryption in stream ciphers is performed one bit at a time . The Cryptographic techniques are utilized to encrypt (scramble) messages before the messages are transmitted or stored. Encrypted information can be saved on non-secure media or transmitted over a non-secure system. Later, the information can be decrypted into its original form. In this regard, this system of implanting the information gives the protection of the digital contents of the message. Image 1 shows an example process of cryptography.
Fig.1. Process of Cryptography
At the point when the data is encrypted, the scrambled message and an encryption key are passed to the encryption algorithm. To decrypt the digital data, the ciphertext and a decryption key is spreaded over to the algorithm of decryption. A key is said to be symmetric single key is employed in both encryption as well as decryption. Hence, keys which are used in the cryptographic methods must be kept as protected as possible. The difficult task in the cryptography technique is properly denied the access to the decryption key, because anyone who acquires, it is easy to decrypt all messages.
Asymmetric encryption is another type of encryption, also called as public key cryptography. In this type of encryption, two types of keys like private key and public key are used. A private key is keeping it to one's self and not share it with others and the public key is made available to everyone to a publicly accessible repository or directory. In the asymmetric encryption system, the public and private keys are connected in a manner that only the public key can be used to scramble messages and only the corresponding private key can be used to decrypt them. Besides, it is practically difficult to find the private key on the off chance if you know the public key. Authentication is the process of verifying and confirming the identity of a person or entity. For example, day to day lives, physical documentation, often called credentials, are used to verify a person's identity. Data integrity is the protection of information from damage or deliberate manipulation. In the real world, seals are used to provide and prove integrity.
The extensive literature collected related to the performance improvement of cryptographic techniques is critically reviewed and presented in this chapter. Further, the summary of the review of literature is also furnished at the end of the review.
Mohammad Ali Bani Younes et al.  proposed a image permutation approach with the RijnDael calculation. In this strategy the host image is isolated into the square size of 4 pixels × 4 pixels, by utilizing the stage stream consequently the image experienced to permuted image, and further the created image is encoded utilizing the RijnDael calculation. Their results demonstrated the connection between image components is fundamentally lessened by embracing the blend strategy and higher entropy was refined.
Acharya et al.  clarified a propelled Hill (AdvHill) encryption procedure which is appropriate to an automatic key framework. This strategy holds an encryption conspire with quick calculation to beats issues of scrambling the images with homogeneous establishment. The yield of the scrambled images uncovers that the proposed approach is exceptionally solid and trustworthy. Subasree et al.  depicted the three cryptographic approachs, for example, respectability, secrecy and validation. These three methodologies can be expert with the help of Elliptic Curve Cryptography, Dual-RSA calculation and Message Digest MD-5. Encryption system is completed by Elliptic Curve Cryptography, Authentication for Dual-RSA calculation, at long last MD-5 for respectability. This new security framework tradition has been proposed for security of mixed media information with honesty utilizing the consolidated methodologies of symmetric and hilter kilter cryptographic procedures.
Seyed Mohammad Seyedzade et al  portrayed a calculation which depends on SHA-512 hash work. At first, preprocessing task is taken after to rearrange the one portion of the image; assist this hash work is utilized to produce an irregular number cover. At long last, XOR task did the cover with the other locale of the image which will be scrambled.
Ismail Amr Ismail et al  clarified a disorder based stream image, with the make out of the two tumultuous calculated maps and the mystery key (outer) for encryption of images. In this plan the mystery key of size in the length of 104 bits and the two riotous strategic maps are used to seclude between the plain and the scrambled image. Further, key esteem is changed arbitrarily by scrambling of each pixel of the plain image which makes the encoded image is more powerful. By then the power of the proposed framework is step by step expanded in light of criticism instrument.
Sesha Pallavi Indrakanti et al  displayed the method in light of the irregular pixel stage with the motivation to keep the level of magnificence of the image. In this encryption procedure is trailed by the three phases. To start with organize is the image encryption took after by the key age in second stage. At long last, organize is the ID procedure. This issues the secrecy to shading image with less calculation.
Sahu et al.  showed image encryption and the decoding method using the biometric layout (Palm Print). This approach is useful for scrambling a ton of data, mostly; computerized images utilized as a proposed key age calculations. This arrangement satisfies the highlights of worthwhile affirmation, low count multifaceted nature and the immense security. The prominent highlights of this image encryption technique are lossless, unbalanced open key encryption, parcel of mystery keys, and the substitution of key-subordinate pixel esteem. Mahajan et al.  clarified the encryption methods like AES, DES and RSA calculations. The execution of each encoding systems are judged in light of the estimation of its execution time taken amid encryption and unscrambling. Test comes about are shown to break down the exhibitions of every calculation.
Manish Mishra et al.  depicted an approach which is chiefly material to the Chaotic System, Wavelet Transform close by the remarkable finger impression of a image is made by utilizing the Hash Function. The strategy utilizes by presenting the Wavelet Transform on the grounds that it changes over the spatial space frame into the recurrence area, at this height we can accumulate the moment subtle elements of the image. Next, the reverse Wavelet Transform is connected to get back the spatial type of a image. At last got image is a scrambled frame. Other than encryption procedure the hash work is associated with the first image to get the unique mark of the image. The one of a kind finger impression of the image is utilized to keep up the dependability of the image.
Venkata Sainath Gupta et al.  clarified the security of a image with pressure. This proposed calculation gives the bedlam on EZW pressure procedure is to mastermind defend of a image fused with the image pressure. The way toward organizing the security of a image begins with image pressure utilizing EZW. The Embedded Zero Wavelet (EZW) is utilized for packing a image viably which holds an astounding property of coding the bits with the demand of their criticalness. The yield grouping of EZW is changed over to 2-D data and on this 2-D information, push and a section calculation for scrambling is connected in view of tumult. This disarray strategic guide alongside EZW pressure strategy is to give the image security. This EZW pressure isn't just for pressure of a image, yet in addition it gives the more image security making disorder as more vigorous.
Xiaojun Tong, et al.  clarified the work in view of the composite 2-D disorder. At first, this approach manages the two 1-D disordered capacities that climb and down arbitrarily and this design is adjusted as an arrangement generator. Encryption is accomplished adequately by picking any one 1-D work self-assertively and the stage on image pixels. The 3-D pastry specialist procedure is likewise shown by the creators. Tried aftereffects of this proposed encryption is vigorous by bookkeeping some investigation on a strategy. Another mix of encryption method with 2-D pastry specialist and DES calculation finish up the execution of the calculation, security and execution time of another encryption system is superior to past strategies.
Mayank Mishra et al. proposed an encryption procedure in light of pixel rearranging and three turbulent maps blend. Pixel scrambling calculation is empower to irregularity of the turmoil and the scramble the situation of the information. Reworking is used to expand dispersal in the image and scramble the high relationship among image pixels after that the encryption is experienced the rearranged image utilizing disorganized arrangement produced by each other disordered guide. Keeping in mind the end goal to image the greatness, the proposed calculation was assessed through a progression of tests. Results demonstrate that the approach is exceptionally key touchy and showcases a decent protection against savage power and measurable assaults.
Amitava Nag et al. introduced another calculation in light of relative change which is relevant on rearranging the image pixels. It has two phase encryption unscrambling figuring. Right off the bat XOR activity is done to mixed the ensuing image and after that using the relative change, the pixel regards were redistributed to different territories with 4 bit keys. The changed image by then disconnected into 2 pixels x 2 pixels squares and each piece is encoded using XOR task by four 8-bit keys. The result shows that the connection between's pixel regards was inside and out reduced after the relative change.
Rasul Enayatifar and Abdul Hanan Abdullah  proposed a image encryption calculation in view of the half and half mix of a hereditary calculation and a riotous capacity. In their methodology, unique image is experienced the encryption procedure, which is accomplished by the disordered capacity. In the progressive stage, these encoded images are utilized as the underlying populace for beginning the procedure of the hereditary calculation. The principle point of this hereditary calculation is utilized to streamline the scrambled images however much as could reasonably be expected. Finally, the appropriate image image is picked as the last encryption image. Qais H. Alsafasfeh and Aouda A. Arfoa portrayed the new image encryption calculation in view of Lorenz and Rossler clamorous framework. A mixed image is gotten by including this two turbulent frameworks. From Experimental outcomes they demonstrated that the image encryption calculation merits more focal points of vast key space and the security level is high, high darken level and fast.
Qiudong Sun et al  depicted the general irregular scrambling technique which holds the relentless scrambling level than the set up system Arnold changes. At first, the decayed dark image is experienced the numerous piece plane images and it is rearranged by an irregular scrambling calculation. At last, the mixed piece plane images as demonstrated by their interesting position on bit-planes and hold up a mixed image. As a result of each piece plane image is utilized by various scrambling unpredictable groupings, the bits situated at comparable encourages in different piece planes are nearly not stationary on the first places when each piece plane being mixed independently. For every pixel, every one of the bits of dark level, thusly, might be originated from those pixels found diverse positions. Correspondingly, the uncovered dark levels of image are changed ineluctable. It is certain that the technique can execute both the positions trade scrambling and dark level change scrambling in the meantime.
Tariq Shah, et al  proposed a system to examine the predominant S-boxes and mull over their characteristics and weaknesses remembering the ultimate objective to choose their sensibility in the utilization of image encryption. The proposed standard applies to the results from relationship examination, entropy examination, separate examination, homogeneity examination, imperativeness examination, and mean of aggregate deviation examination. These examinations are associated with bleeding edge encryption standard (AES).
Jiancheng Zou et al  exhibited a digital image scrambling method based on the Fibonacci numbers. In this approach the regularization and periodicity of the scrambling transformation are discussed. Encoding and decoding is simple to apply in real-time systems. The scrambling gives the very sensible effect; the information of an image is re-spread randomly across the entire image. The methods can sure the common image attacks, such as compression, noise and the data packet loss.
Narendra Kumar Dewangan et al proposed the model for encryption and decoding of a image is composed with similar purposes no expected to send open or private key, first info image at that point produce auto created key for image encryption utilizing stream image , encoded image will be isolate into four sections then calculations gave auto arrangement number to image, transmit four divided image, In opposite end first takes portioned image then all fragments consolidate then produce auto produced key and utilizing this key unscramble image and examination nature of image.
Satish Garg et al  introduced chip away at new symmetric key cryptographic strategy where turn image is connected on digitized type of plain content. In this technique the sender first changes over the plain content into advanced shape by utilizing 8 bit ASCII Code and after that apply turn image on this digitized plain content, along these lines concealing the first content. This computerized message is sent to the beneficiary who can unscramble.
Satish Kumar Garg  proposed a novel cryptographic strategy where by utilizing transposition and turn images, triple encryption (E3) is accomplished. In this strategy, E3 is accomplished by first applying the transposition image on the plain content and after that applying pivot image on this transposed content. The proposed technique can be connected to scramble any information comprising of at least 30 characters. The outcomes got after utilization of proposed calculation are great and hard to decode. Manimaran et al  gave a calculation of dynamic approach for encoding and decoding message utilizing base transformation, ASCII esteems and time stamp. This routine with regards to cryptography assumes an imperative part in protecting the messages through encryption and unscrambling.
Narendra K. Dewangan, Manisha Dewangan  proposed the model for encryption and decoding of a image utilizing auto created key which is produced by image. The objective of security administration is to give confirmation of clients, and trustworthiness, exactness and wellbeing of information assets. Also, an image based information requires more exertion amid encryption and decoding. It is required to guarantee secrecy and security for transmitting certain image based information over the Internet. The point of security administration is to give verification of clients and respectability, exactness and wellbeing of information assets. The model for encryption and decoding of a image is outlined with similar purposes
Jaspar Vinitha Sundari and Karthika  proposed a shading image encryption utilizing the disordered calculation for a profoundly secure transmission is proposed. The RGB image lattices are separated into pieces of 16 pixels to such an extent that each 16 pixels will be scrambled with various session keys utilizing disordered strategic guide. This is finished by changing the underlying condition with change in key for each square of pixels. The proposed plot uses two confused calculated maps and an outer key of 80-bit. To make the image more shielded, the mystery key is tweaked in the wake of scrambling a piece of pixels of the image. To enhance the speed and Accuracy, the quantity of pieces of pixels for which the key must be changed, is expanded. The consequences of a few trial, measurable investigation and key affectability tests demonstrate that the proposed image encryption conspire gives a productive and secure route for continuous image encryption and transmission.
Love Verma and Ram Nivas Giri clarified a crossover calculation that joins image encryption and watermarking method for safe transmission reason. This technique depends on the combination of public private keys and secret key ciphering, and watermarking. The encryption calculation with mystery key is connected to the image. Encryption of the mystery key with an encryption technique in view of open private keys. At that point, this mystery enter is inserted in the scrambled image.
Narendren et al  distinguished an effective cryptographic plan for scrambling that plain content into a image content. In this paper, a cryptographic plan in view of RSA and the preliminary idea utilized as a part of PCR innovation. The proposed plot yields preferred outcome over the current plans. Satish Kumar Garg  introduced a one of a kind cryptographic technique where bit level control is finished utilizing transposition image. In this strategy, first by utilizing Extended ASCII Code, input series of characters is changed over into advanced frame then transposition image is connected on this string lastly by invert of the Extended ASCII Code on this transposed string, bits are changed over into characters. The proposed strategy can be connected to scramble any information comprising of at least 10 characters. The outcomes got after utilization of proposed calculation are great and hard to unscramble.
The security of interactive media data has ended up being especially basic since the correspondence by disseminating of electronic things over the overall happen a great part of the time. Consistent new encryption strategy is produced in this way a fast and shield the customary encryption systems will reliably work out with the abnormal state of security. Those encryption methodologies are inspected and separated well to propel the execution of the encryption systems similarly to confirmation the security strategies. To finish up, every one of the methods which are pertinent to empower the continuous encryption.
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Received on 25.04.2018 Accepted on 26.06.2018
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