Assessment of Groundwater Quality using CCME-WQI Method in Kurupam Region, Vizianagaram District, Andhra Pradesh, India

 

G.V.R. Srinivasa Rao1 G. Rupa Kumari2*, B. Kalyanaramu3

1Faculty, Department of Civil Engineering, AU College of Engineering (A), Andhra University,

Visakhapatnam-530003, Andhra Pradesh (India).

2Research Scholar, Department of Civil Engineering, AU College of Engineering (A), Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530003, Andhra Pradesh (India).

3Faculty, Department of Chemistry, M.R. College (A), Vizianagaram-535002, Andhra Pradesh (India).

*CorrespondingAuthorE-mail: g.rupakumari@gmail.com

 

 

ABSTRACT:

The aim of the present work is to study the groundwater quality assessment of Kurupam and surrounding mandals of Vizianagaram District. It is done by analyzing the groundwater samples collected from several sampling locations spread across the study area uniformly. A total number of 528 groundwater samples are collected from bore holes of 44 selected locations in the study area at regular monthly intervals and analyzed for various quality indicating parameters such as pH, EC, TDS, TH, TA, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, CO32-, HCO3-, Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, F- using standard laboratory procedures. The overall quality of groundwater in the study area was assessed using water quality index method of Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME-WQI). From the analysis it has been observed that quality of about 13.64% of the water samples is Excellent, about 59.09% is Good, about 18.18 % is Fair and about 9.09% is Marginal in the study area.

 

KEYWORDS: Calcium, Canadian Water Quality Index, Chloride, Fluoride, Magnesium, Nitrates

 


1. INTRODUCTION:

Water is essential for human survival and industrial development. For many rural and small-scale communities, groundwater is the only source of drinking water. Groundwater quality depends on the quality of recharged water, atmospheric precipitation, inland surface water and subsurface geochemical processes. The quality of groundwater varies due to a change in chemical composition of the underlying sediments and aquifer. However, in the recent past groundwater quality is getting deteriorated due to various reasons and making it unsuitable for drinking purposes. Groundwater, in general, is less susceptible to bacterial pollution when compared with the surface water. But it contains several chemical elements like Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3-, Cl- and SO42- which play an important role in the assessment of quality of groundwater. Therefore, the assessment of groundwater quality for drinking has become a necessary and an important task for the present and future groundwater quality management.

 

Several studies have been conducted on the assessment of groundwater quality1-10 using water quality index and comparison methods. Several researchers conducted studies to assess the quality of surface water11-12 using CCME-WQI method. The groundwater quality assessment was done in Cauvery deltaic region, Tamilnadu, for drinking13 and in Kadava River basin, Maharashtra for drinking and irrigation14-15 using the same method. According to the literature, the studies related to assessment of water quality using CCME Water Quality Index in Vizianagaram district was not yet conducted. Therefore, the present study aimed to apply CCME Water Quality Index to study the groundwater quality in the study area for drinking.

 

Study Area:

The study area considered for this work is Kurupam and surrounding mandals of Vizianagaram district. It lies between 18-40’ and 19-10’ of the northern latitudes and 83-15’ and 83-46’of the eastern longitudes (FIG.1). Latitude and Longitudes of the Sampling locations are presented in the Table 1. The study area occupies an around 910 sq.km and comprises of 460 villages.

 

Fig 1: Location map of the Study Area

 

Table 1: Latitude and Longitudes of the Sampling locations

S. No.

Sample Id

Sampling Station

Mandal

Latitude

Longitude

1

KS1

Beerupadu

GL Puram

190 03’40”

830 28’20”

2

KS2

Chemuduguda

GL Puram

19000’43”

83042’53”

3

KS3

Dolukona

GL Puram

19007’34”

83036’41”

4

KS4

Duddukhallu

GL Puram

18056’33”

83033’19”

5

KS5

GLpuram

GL Puram

18058’22”

83039’24”

6

KS6

Karlaguda

GL Puram

18058’30”

83035’15”

7

KS7

Marriguda

GL Puram

19007’39”

83038’30”

8

KS8

Mulalikkidi

GL Puram

19000’55”

83040’11”

9

KS9

Muliguda

GL Puram

19004’12”

83033’40”

10

KS10

Kambavalasa

Komarada

18051’46”

83025’27”

11

KS11

Kodulagumpa

Komarada

18052’27”

83028’42”

12

KS12

Komarada

Komarada

18053’52”

83027’59”

13

KS13

Kotipam

Komarada

18051’49”

83027’43”

14

KS14

Madalangi

Komarada

18053’49”

83029’45”

15

KS15

Pudesu

Komarada

19000’06”

83021’29”

16

KS16

Vannam

Komarada

18052’50”

83030’02”

17

KS17

Vikramapuram

Komarada

18048’46”

83026’49”

18

KS18

Gangannaora valasa

Kurupam

18047’36”

83042’05”

19

KS19

Gumma

Kurupam

18057’28”

83038’38”

20

KS20

Kurupam

Kurupam

18052’19”

83033’49”

21

KS21

Rajjali

Kurupam

18055’5”

83037’57”

22

KS22

Ramuduguda

Kurupam

18053’21”

83045’39”

23

KS23

Relliguda

Kurupam

18058’59”

83043’48”

24

KS24

Sivvannapeta

Kurupam

18052’17”

83032’49”

25

KS25

Alamanda

Jiyyammavalasa

18048’26”

83036’07”

26

KS26

Ankavaram

Jiyyammavalasa

18046’41”

83034’49”

27

KS27

Arnada

Jiyyammavalasa

18047’26”

83033’15”

28

KS28

Bj puram

Jiyyammavalasa

18048’01”

83034’54”

29

KS29

Chinamerangi

Jiyyammavalasa

18050’32”

83033’06”

30

KS30

Parajapadu

Jiyyammavalasa

18047’58”

83032’57”

31

KS31

Addapuseela

Parvathipuram

18045’49”

83027’26”

32

KS32

Antivalasa

Parvathipuram

18041’52”

83021'00"

33

KS33

Dokisheela

Parvathipuram

18045’50”

83017’47”

34

KS34

Gopalapuram

Parvathipuram

18047’44”

83027’12”

35

KS35

Pedamariki

Parvathipuram

18048’48”

83023’46”

36

KS36

Puligummi

Parvathipuram

18042’46”

83021’17”

37

KS37

Sangamvalasa

Parvathipuram

18046’58”

83021’57”

38

KS38

Chilakam

Garugubilli

18043’30”

83031’55”

39

KS39

Garugubilli

Garugubilli

18042’47”

83029’58”

40

KS40

Kothuru

Garugubilli

18041’43”

83032’22”

41

KS41

Pedagadaba

Garugubilli

18043’46”

83026’40”

42

KS42

Ravupalli

Garugubilli

18041’50”

83031’24”

43

KS43

Thotapalli

Garugubilli

18047’17”

83030’09”

44

KS44

Vullibhadra

Garugubilli

18045’30”

83028’40”

 

2. MATERIALS AND METHODS:

In the present investigation, a total number of 528 groundwater samples were collected from 44 different sample stations of the study area from November 2018 to October 2019. Month wise analysis was done. Samples were collected in pre-cleaned polythene bottles by washing with non-ionic detergents, rinsed with water, 1:1 hydrochloric acid and finally with de-ionized water. Before sampling, the bottles were rinsed three times with sample water. Tube wells were operated at least five minutes before collection of the water samples. The water quality parameter estimation was done using standard methods16. Samples were brought to the laboratory and kept at 4C until used for analysis of physico-chemical parameters.

 

pH parameter was measured by digital pH meter (Elico LI-120), EC measured by conductometer (Elico CL-351), TDS determined by Gravimetry, nitrate (NO3-) ion determined by UV-visible spectrophotometer (Elico SL-177) with 1cm quartz cell, using Phenol Disulphonic Acid (PDA) method, Fluoride (F- ion) determined by SPADNS method and other parameters such as Total Hardness (TH), Total Alkalinity (TA), Calcium, Magnesium, Chloride, carbonate and bicarbonates ions are determined by titrimetrically. Sulphate is determined by turbidimetry using standard barium chloride solution. Sodium ion measured by flame photometry (Elico CL-361).

Water Quality Index method:

Several WQIs have been proposed by Researchers17-19 and used appropriately by Governmental agencies and researchers. Among several WQIs, the Canadian Council of Ministers of Environment Water Quality Index (CCMEWQI), National Sanitation Foundation Water Quality Index (NSFWQI), Oregon Water Quality Index (OWQI) and Weighted Arithmetic Water Quality Index Method (WAIWQI) are commonly used. Among those methods, CCME WQI method was applied to assess groundwater quality of study area.

 

CCME Water quality Index:

Canadian water quality index is the water quality index developed by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME 2001)20 and is used among the researchers in developing countries for simplifying the reporting of water quality data and delivers a broad overview of water quality data. This method requires Water Quality Objectives (WQOs) and this essentially consists of two steps. Step I: Calculation of three measures of variance from WQOs (scope F1, frequency F2 and amplitude F3). Step II: Deduct from 100 the value of square root of sum of squares of F1, F2 an F3 divided by 1.732 to produce a value between 0 and 100 that represent the overall water quality. Scope F1 represents the number of variables not meeting water quality objectives; frequency F2 considers the number of times these objectives are not met; and amplitude F3 is the measure of the amount by which the objectives are not met. Based on CCME-WQI values, quality of water is classified20 into five categories, as shown in the TABLE 2. While calculating the WQI, the permissible values (Si) for the parameters are considered as per the WHO/BIS and are shown in TABLE 3.

 

Table 2: Classification of water quality based on CCME-WQI values

WQI range

Ranking of water quality

Abbreviation used in Table 4 for ranking

Remarks

95-100

Excellent

EXC

Water quality is protected with a virtual absence of threat or impairment; conditions very close to natural or pristine levels.

80-94

Good

GOOD

Water quality is protected with only a minor degree of threat or impairment; conditions rarely depart from natural or desirable levels.

65-79

Fair

FAIR

Water quality is usually protected but occasionally threatened or impaired; conditions sometimes depart from natural or desirable levels.

45-64

Marginal

MAR

Water quality is frequently threatened or impaired; conditions often depart from natural or desirable levels.

0-44

Poor

POOR

Water quality is almost always threatened or impaired; conditions usually depart from natural or desirable levels.

 

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

The test results of varied parameters are showing some fluctuations based on chemical analysis. The minimum (Min), maximum (Max) and mean values of the analyzed physical and chemical parameters and CCME-WQI values are presented in TABLE 3 and TABLE 4 respectively.

 

Table 3: Analysis of Groundwater Samples: Minimum, Maximum and Mean values of Physical and Chemical parameters

Sample ID

KS1

KS2

KS3

KS4

Parameters

Range

Mean

Range

Mean

Range

Mean

Range

Mean

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

pH

6.58

7.31

6.99

6.74

7.40

7.08

6.80

7.95

7.11

6.58

7.80

7.05

EC

975.00

1032.00

1000.75

1770.00

1835.00

1801.92

475.00

580.00

536.33

660.00

720.00

688.67

TDS

644.00

680.00

660.08

1154.00

1194.00

1173.00

322.00

390.00

362.42

442.00

480.00

461.42

NO3

12.38

19.00

15.62

20.00

24.00

22.17

6.00

12.00

9.67

10.00

16.00

12.65

TH

212.00

240.00

228.08

340.00

360.00

351.25

90.00

130.00

110.00

140.00

160.00

151.67

Ca

39.00

43.00

40.83

52.00

56.00

54.00

21.00

25.00

23.00

25.00

30.00

26.50

Mg

25.00

28.00

26.17

51.00

55.00

53.00

13.00

17.00

15.00

13.00

16.00

14.50

Na

21.00

28.00

24.92

10.00

15.00

12.25

10.00

17.00

14.75

12.00

16.00

14.17

Cl

34.00

50.00

38.33

15.00

25.00

18.75

20.00

30.00

22.50

20.00

24.00

21.50

SO4

17.00

21.00

19.00

3.00

7.00

5.00

6.00

11.00

8.67

12.00

17.00

14.25

CO3

5.00

9.00

7.00

12.00

16.00

14.00

5.00

10.00

7.92

8.00

16.00

11.92

HCO3

170.00

210.00

195.42

350.00

370.00

359.75

100.00

120.00

110.42

80.00

120.00

100.00

F

0.33

0.43

0.37

0.31

0.44

0.37

0.27

0.36

0.31

0.35

0.47

0.40

TA

190.00

230.00

215.42

372.00

420.00

389.75

120.00

160.00

139.17

100.00

140.00

120.00

 

 

Sample ID

KS5

KS6

KS7

KS8

Parameters

Range

Mean

Range

Mean

Range

Mean

Range

Mean

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

pH

7.50

8.10

7.82

6.80

7.50

7.15

7.50

8.00

7.73

7.00

7.50

7.25

EC

1257.00

1423.00

1337.25

525.00

595.00

567.50

890.00

951.00

924.25

954.00

1015.00

985.17

TDS

824.00

930.00

879.58

356.00

400.00

382.25

591.00

628.00

611.08

630.00

670.00

650.00

NO3

19.00

24.00

21.44

5.00

9.00

7.03

23.00

28.00

25.36

5.00

10.00

7.20

TH

235.00

255.00

245.00

100.00

130.00

118.83

210.00

240.00

225.00

235.00

255.00

244.42

Ca

42.00

47.00

44.67

25.00

29.00

27.00

68.00

72.00

70.00

45.00

49.00

47.00

Mg

25.00

29.00

27.00

10.00

14.00

12.00

9.00

13.00

11.00

29.00

33.00

31.00

Na

32.00

38.00

36.08

10.00

16.00

13.08

10.00

16.00

13.25

15.00

25.00

21.58

Cl

48.00

65.00

55.50

17.00

25.00

20.00

15.00

25.00

20.25

25.00

40.00

33.25

SO4

8.00

13.00

10.83

20.00

24.00

22.00

11.00

15.00

13.00

17.00

21.00

19.00

CO3

17.00

21.00

19.00

5.00

9.00

7.00

10.00

14.00

12.00

18.00

22.00

20.00

HCO3

175.00

210.00

191.67

80.00

110.00

91.33

195.00

230.00

213.33

200.00

220.00

210.00

F

0.60

0.72

0.66

0.31

0.48

0.38

0.35

0.51

0.43

0.16

0.33

0.24

TA

195.00

230.00

211.67

100.00

130.00

113.67

215.00

250.00

233.33

220.00

240.00

230.00

 

 

Sample ID

KS9

KS10

KS11

KS12

Parameters

Range

Mean

Range

Mean

Range

Mean

Range

Mean

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

pH

6.58

7.80

7.04

6.70

7.32

6.99

7.28

8.00

7.55

7.09

7.83

7.31

EC

1232.00

1420.00

1311.42

880.00

985.00

953.08

1142.00

1211.00

1174.33

1001.00

1049.00

1021.92

TDS

808.00

929.00

858.83

582.00

650.00

629.58

750.00

794.00

770.92

660.00

692.00

673.67

NO3

25.00

30.00

27.01

8.00

12.00

10.38

8.00

14.00

10.86

8.00

13.00

10.67

TH

315.00

335.00

325.00

190.00

210.00

200.00

220.00

240.00

227.75

190.00

215.00

204.17

Ca

90.00

94.00

92.00

38.00

42.00

40.00

37.00

42.00

39.17

31.00

35.00

32.33

Mg

16.00

20.00

18.00

23.00

27.00

25.00

29.00

33.00

31.17

25.00

31.00

28.33

Na

24.00

29.00

26.75

16.00

22.00

18.92

24.00

30.00

26.92

42.00

49.00

45.67

Cl

35.00

45.00

41.08

25.00

35.00

29.08

38.00

44.00

40.75

66.00

71.00

68.58

SO4

22.00

26.00

24.00

14.00

18.00

16.00

12.00

16.00

14.00

17.00

21.00

19.00

CO3

4.00

9.00

6.33

6.00

10.00

8.00

18.00

22.00

19.67

22.00

26.00

24.00

HCO3

280.00

320.00

300.00

180.00

205.00

191.67

180.00

200.00

192.50

135.00

170.00

150.58

F

0.27

0.41

0.34

0.39

0.48

0.43

0.34

0.50

0.41

0.34

0.46

0.39

TA

300.00

340.00

320.00

200.00

225.00

211.67

200.00

220.00

212.33

155.00

190.00

170.58

 

 

Sample ID

KS13

KS14

KS15

KS16

Parameters

Range

Mean

Range

Mean

Range

Mean

Range

Mean

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

pH

6.60

7.80

7.14

6.84

7.40

7.16

7.09

7.54

7.34

7.50

7.90

7.67

EC

790.00

845.00

819.75

1125.00

1170.00

1137.58

880.00

923.00

898.17

1112.00

1157.00

1127.92

TDS

525.00

560.00

543.75

739.00

770.00

747.58

582.00

610.00

594.42

731.00

760.00

741.25

NO3

5.00

9.00

6.93

9.00

14.00

11.18

10.16

14.00

12.05

13.00

18.00

15.56

TH

120.00

135.00

129.33

272.00

285.00

277.83

160.00

180.00

170.75

256.00

275.00

265.75

Ca

21.00

26.00

23.17

21.00

25.00

23.00

23.00

27.00

25.17

28.00

34.00

30.08

Mg

15.00

19.00

17.17

50.00

54.00

52.00

22.00

27.00

25.00

43.00

47.00

45.00

Na

17.00

25.00

20.92

8.00

15.00

12.17

5.00

11.00

7.83

5.00

11.00

8.17

Cl

25.00

40.00

32.00

10.00

25.00

18.67

5.00

18.00

12.00

5.00

20.00

12.33

SO4

9.00

13.00

11.00

23.00

27.00

25.00

12.00

16.00

14.00

6.00

10.00

8.00

CO3

10.00

14.00

12.00

3.00

7.00

5.00

4.00

24.00

15.67

11.00

15.00

13.00

HCO3

95.00

115.00

106.00

260.00

280.00

268.50

155.00

175.00

164.00

245.00

270.00

258.33

F

0.24

0.33

0.28

0.36

0.49

0.42

0.19

0.32

0.24

0.29

0.38

0.32

TA

115.00

135.00

126.00

280.00

300.00

288.50

175.00

195.00

184.00

265.00

290.00

278.33

 

 

Sample ID

KS17

KS18

KS19

KS20

Parameters

Range

 Mean

Range

Mean

Range

Mean

Range

Mean

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

pH

7.40

8.00

  7.74

6.84

7.40

7.15

7.02

7.50

7.21

6.60

7.40

7.15

EC

1501

1554

  1531

1138.0

1173.00

1155.25

1348.00

1437.00

1385.00

1135.00

1191.00

1165.58

TDS

980.00

1014.00

  999.17

748.00

770.00

759.00

882.00

939.00

905.92

746.00

782.00

765.67

NO3

10.00

14.00

  12.00

12.50

17.00

14.46

20.00

24.00

22.17

5.00

10.00

7.58

TH

415.00

435.00

  424.67

158.00

175.00

166.33

284.00

310.00

297.92

220.00

240.00

229.42

Ca

83.00

87.00

  85.00

31.00

35.00

33.00

60.00

68.00

62.42

41.00

45.00

43.00

Mg

51.00

55.00

  53.00

17.00

21.00

19.00

31.00

36.00

34.08

28.00

32.00

30.00

Na

50.00

57.00

  53.67

23.00

31.00

27.67

31.00

37.00

34.42

22.00

27.00

25.33

Cl

75.00

90.00

  82.42

35.00

50.00

42.50

51.00

55.00

52.92

35.00

45.00

39.00

SO4

69.00

73.00

  71.00

10.00

14.00

12.00

9.00

13.00

11.17

12.00

16.00

14.00

CO3

19.00

25.00

  21.08

3.00

7.00

5.00

32.00

39.00

35.08

7.00

11.00

9.00

HCO3

320.00

350.00

  336.00

145.00

170.00

156.67

230.00

260.00

240.17

208.00

230.00

219.42

F

0.38

0.49

  0.42

0.19

0.29

0.24

0.28

0.40

0.34

0.34

0.48

0.40

TA

340.00

370.00

  356.00

170.00

210.00

184.00

250.00

280.00

260.17

228.00

250.00

239.42

 

Sample ID

KS21

KS22

KS23

KS24

Parameters

Range

Mean

Range

Mean

Range

Mean

Range

Mean

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

pH

7.50

7.90

7.68

7.09

7.50

7.24

6.90

7.50

7.13

7.10

7.50

7.29

EC

963.00

1001.00

974.58

729.00

807.00

753.67

729.00

807.00

763.92

1326.00

1385.00

1356.92

TDS

636.00

660.00

643.25

486.00

536.00

501.67

486.00

535.00

507.58

868.00

906.00

888.50

NO3

12.00

17.35

14.49

14.50

19.00

16.83

11.00

16.00

13.02

16.00

20.00

18.00

TH

228.00

256.00

241.83

215.00

235.00

225.00

205.00

225.00

215.33

265.00

280.00

272.33

Ca

41.00

45.00

43.00

37.00

41.00

39.00

44.00

48.00

46.00

62.00

66.00

64.00

Mg

27.00

31.00

29.00

27.00

31.00

29.00

25.00

29.00

27.00

26.00

30.00

28.00

Na

26.00

35.00

30.92

8.00

16.00

12.42

15.00

21.00

18.67

30.00

37.00

34.42

Cl

40.00

55.00

47.50

10.00

25.00

19.08

25.00

35.00

28.67

47.00

60.00

53.00

SO4

12.00

22.00

18.00

3.00

7.00

5.00

16.00

20.00

18.00

19.00

23.00

21.00

CO3

14.00

18.00

16.00

32.00

39.00

34.58

17.00

21.00

19.00

26.00

30.00

28.00

HCO3

185.00

210.00

197.50

160.00

190.00

170.00

180.00

205.00

191.67

208.00

230.00

218.67

F

0.47

0.63

0.54

0.32

0.44

0.38

0.31

0.43

0.37

0.30

0.43

0.36

TA

205.00

230.00

217.50

180.00

210.00

190.00

200.00

225.00

211.67

228.00

250.00

238.67

 

Sample ID

KS25

KS26

KS27

KS28

Parameters

Range

Mean

Range

Mean

Range

Mean

Range

Mean

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

pH

7.20

7.80

7.42

6.90

7.40

7.17

7.20

7.80

7.45

7.34

7.90

7.64

EC

1741

1884

1786

1132

1251

1196

1686

1760

1730

2009.00

2101

2063.92

TDS

1134

1225

1164

744.00

820.00

785.08

1100

1146

1127

1305.00

1364.00

1340.50

NO3

27.00

32.00

29.77

8.00

12.00

10.00

8.00

12.00

9.74

27.00

31.00

29.05

TH

370.00

395.00

384.17

285.00

305.00

295.33

375.00

  395.00

383.33

590.00

605.00

594.92

Ca

23.00

28.00

25.33

55.00

59.00

57.00

28.00

33.00

30.00

60.00

65.00

62.33

Mg

75.00

79.00

77.00

37.00

41.00

39.00

72.00

76.00

74.00

104.00

108.00

106.00

Na

27.00

33.00

31.17

26.00

31.00

28.67

25.00

35.00

32.00

9.00

13.00

11.00

Cl

40.00

55.00

47.42

40.00

50.00

43.83

47.00

50.00

49.00

15.00

20.00

16.92

SO4

17.00

21.00

19.00

8.00

12.00

10.00

10.00

16.00

13.00

51.00

55.00

53.00

CO3

6.00

10.00

8.00

42.00

46.00

44.00

10.00

14.00

12.00

74.00

79.00

76.58

HCO3

365.00

390.00

377.50

230.00

250.00

240.00

375.00

  390.00

380.83

420.00

460.00

441.67

F

0.30

0.37

0.33

0.34

0.51

0.42

0.31

0.43

0.36

0.27

0.39

0.33

TA

385.00

410.00

397.50

250.00

270.00

260.00

395.00

  410.00

400.83

440.00

480.00

461.67

 

Sample ID

KS29

KS30

KS31

KS32

Parameters

Range

Mean

Range

Mean

Range

Mean

Range

Mean

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

pH

6.58

7.67

7.18

6.74

7.80

7.15

7.00

7.60

7.35

7.40

8.00

7.74

EC

975

1052

1001

1570.00

1610.00

1590.58

2001.00

2091.00

2058.92

2626.00

2686.00

2653.75

TDS

644.00

693.00

661.00

1024.00

1050.00

1037.33

1300.00

1358.00

1337.33

1700.00

1740.00

1717.58

NO3

11.00

15.00

13.00

14.00

18.00

16.00

19.00

25.00

22.15

43.00

47.00

45.00

TH

180.00

200.00

189.42

275.00

295.00

286.50

520.00

540.00

530.00

470.00

490.00

480.00

Ca

29.00

33.00

31.00

57.00

61.00

59.17

108.00

112.00

110.00

108.00

112.00

110.00

Mg

24.00

28.00

26.00

30.00

34.00

31.92

63.00

67.00

65.00

49.00

53.00

51.00

Na

21.00

28.00

25.50

33.00

40.00

36.25

193.00

201.00

196.50

366.00

373.00

371.00

Cl

35.00

45.00

39.00

50.00

65.00

55.75

290.00

310.00

301.83

565.00

575.00

568.50

SO4

3.00

7.00

5.00

19.00

23.00

21.00

53.00

57.00

54.92

25.00

29.00

27.00

CO3

7.00

11.00

9.00

4.00

8.00

6.00

105.00

115.00

108.67

9.00

13.00

11.00

HCO3

170.00

202.00

181.42

255.00

280.00

267.08

260.00

280.00

269.58

400.00

430.00

415.00

F

0.37

0.50

0.43

0.36

0.47

0.41

0.30

0.42

0.35

0.49

0.63

0.55

TA

190.00

222.00

201.42

275.00

300.00

287.08

280.00

300.00

289.58

420.00

450.00

435.00

 

 

Sample ID

KS33

KS34

KS35

KS36

Parameters

Range

Mean

Range

Mean

Range

Mean

Range

Mean

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

pH

6.84

7.70

7.20

7.30

7.90

7.63

6.90

7.40

7.14

7.00

7.50

7.20

EC

1360

1423

1391

2379.00

2441.00

2411.00

1907.00

1970.00

1938.33

1165.00

1220.00

1188.75

TDS

890.00

930.00

910.00

1542.00

1582.00

1562.50

1240.00

1280.00

1260.00

765.00

800.00

780.50

NO3

34.00

38.00

36.00

43.00

47.00

45.00

34.00

40.00

36.50

21.90

27.00

24.13

TH

270.00

290.00

280.00

490.00

510.00

499.17

455.00

475.00

465.00

115.00

135.00

125.00

Ca

65.00

69.00

67.00

120.00

124.00

122.00

113.00

117.00

115.00

75.00

79.00

77.00

Mg

26.00

30.00

28.00

47.00

51.00

49.00

40.00

44.00

42.00

41.00

45.00

42.83

Na

60.00

67.00

63.67

224.00

231.00

228.42

117.00

123.00

120.92

14.00

21.00

17.83

Cl

90.00

105.00

97.67

345.00

360.00

352.42

180.00

190.00

186.08

20.00

35.00

27.42

SO4

70.00

74.00

72.00

53.00

57.00

55.00

61.00

65.00

63.00

16.00

20.00

18.00

CO3

8.00

11.00

9.33

14.00

18.00

16.00

4.00

8.00

6.00

77.00

86.00

80.33

HCO3

200.00

220.00

209.17

390.00

420.00

410.83

410.00

435.00

423.33

210.00

250.00

230.00

F

0.78

0.90

0.83

0.40

0.52

0.46

0.97

1.13

1.03

1.29

1.41

1.34

TA

220.00

240.00

229.17

410.00

440.00

430.83

430.00

455.00

443.33

230.00

270.00

250.00

 

 

Sample ID

KS37

KS38

KS39

KS40

Parameters

Range

Mean

Range

Mean

Range

Mean

Range

Mean

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

pH

7.20

7.70

7.46

7.00

7.60

7.24

7.00

7.80

7.31

7.02

7.60

7.22

EC

2274

2360

2313

2157

2341

2232

2157

2341

1814

1450

1526

1499

TDS

1475.00

1530.00

1500.17

1400.00

1518.00

1448.50

1400.00

1518.00

1180.83

946.00

996.00

978.58

NO3

39.00

47.00

42.46

16.00

21.00

18.97

16.00

21.00

44.67

3.00

6.00

4.85

TH

470.00

490.00

480.00

310.00

340.00

323.75

310.00

340.00

492.33

230.00

250.00

240.00

Ca

129.00

133.00

131.00

66.00

70.00

68.00

66.00

70.00

116.67

64.00

68.00

65.58

Mg

49.00

53.00

51.00

36.00

40.00

38.00

36.00

40.00

49.25

24.00

28.00

26.00

Na

165.00

176.00

171.92

27.00

32.00

30.33

27.00

32.00

248.50

26.00

33.00

29.42

Cl

255.00

270.00

264.25

40.00

50.00

46.58

40.00

50.00

382.42

40.00

49.00

45.17

SO4

69.00

73.00

71.00

17.00

21.00

19.00

17.00

21.00

22.25

54.00

59.00

57.00

CO3

11.00

15.00

13.00

24.00

30.00

27.25

24.00

30.00

75.67

11.00

15.00

13.00

HCO3

440.00

480.00

461.25

270.00

310.00

285.00

270.00

310.00

333.33

195.00

215.00

205.42

F

0.95

1.14

1.04

1.04

1.21

1.11

1.04

1.21

0.38

0.96

1.07

1.01

TA

460.00

500.00

481.25

290.00

330.00

305.00

290.00

330.00

353.33

215.00

235.00

225.42

 

 

Sample ID

KS41

KS42

KS43

KS44

Permissible values (Si)

Parameters

Range

Mean

Range

Mean

Range

Mean

Range

Mean

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

pH

7.06

7.50

7.24

7.02

7.50

7.32

7.02

7.50

7.20

7.20

7.90

7.59

8.5

EC

1532

1657

1634

1926

2085

2014

1450

1649

1547

2402

2507

2456.58

1000

TDS

1000

1080

1065

1252

1356

1309

946.00

1075

1010

1556

1624.0

1592.08

600

NO3

21.00

26.00

23.66

52.00

57.00

54.27

4.00

10.00

6.17

23.00

29.00

26.01

50

TH

350.00

370.00

360.00

340.00

370.00

357.08

250.00

275.00

261.25

590.00

610.00

598.75

500

Ca

76.00

80.00

78.00

77.00

81.00

79.00

44.00

52.00

47.67

153.00

156.00

154.42

200

Mg

39.00

43.00

41.00

37.00

41.00

39.00

17.00

20.00

18.25

55.00

58.00

56.58

150

Na

90.00

95.00

92.50

230.00

241.00

236.25

39.00

45.00

41.75

282.00

287.00

285.08

200

Cl

140.00

150.00

142.67

360.00

370.00

363.08

61.00

67.00

64.08

438.00

442.00

439.75

250

SO4

24.00

28.00

26.00

9.00

14.00

11.00

3.00

7.00

5.00

64.00

68.00

66.33

250

CO3

20.00

24.00

22.00

10.00

21.00

13.49

5.00

9.00

7.00

121.00

130.00

124.92

30

HCO3

300.00

320.00

310.00

325.00

345.00

335.00

180.00

210.00

200.00

276.00

310.00

289.25

500

F

0.35

0.50

0.41

0.30

0.42

0.35

0.83

0.98

0.90

1.03

1.20

1.10

1.2

TA

320.00

340.00

330.00

345.00

365.00

355.00

200.00

230.00

220.00

296.00

330.00

309.25

200

 

 

Table 4: Calculated values of CCME- WQI of analyzed samples in the study area

Sample ID

KS1

KS2

KS3

KS4

KS5

KS6

KS7

KS8

KS9

KS10

KS11

VALUE OF CCME-WQI

84.10

80.16

100.00

100

83.11

100.00

89.24

84.30

81.79

88.80

82.62

RANKING OF WATER QUALITY

GOOD

GOOD

EXC

EXC

GOOD

EXC

GOOD

GOOD

GOOD

GOOD

GOOD

 

SAMPLE ID

KS12

KS13

KS14

KS15

KS16

KS17

KS18

KS19

KS20

KS21

KS22

VALUE OF CCME-WQI

88.32

100.00

82.21

95.82

82.26

81.10

84.84

76.11

82.32

84.92

90.60

RANKING OF WATER QUALITY

GOOD

EXC

GOOD

EXC

GOOD

GOOD

GOOD

FAIR

GOOD

GOOD

GOOD

 

Sample ID

KS23

KS24

KS25

KS26

KS27

KS28

KS29

KS30

KS31

KS32

KS33

VALUE OF CCME-WQI

94.40

82.06

80.15

76.18

80.29

66.76

85.49

81.36

58.33

65.24

82.04

RANKING OF WATER QUALITY

EXC

GOOD

GOOD

FAIR

GOOD

FAIR

GOOD

GOOD

MAR

FAIR

GOOD

 

SAMPLE ID

KS34

KS35

KS36

KS37

KS38

KS39

KS40

KS41

KS42

KS43

KS44

VALUE OF CCME-WQI

64.04

79.39

69.53

73.04

76.60

61.99

81.87

81.00

62.99

82.03

53.94

RANKING OF WATER QUALITY

FAIR

GOOD

FAIR

FAIR

FAIR

MAR

GOOD

GOOD

MAR

GOOD

MAR

 

CONCLUSIONS:

The results indicated that the water samples at 4 sampling stations out of 44 of the study area do not meet the required standards for drinking purpose based on CCME-WQI analysis as they are ranked as marginal.

The sampling stations where quality of Ground water as Marginal is noticed in the following Villages.

a)     Addapuseela (KS31) in Parvathipuram Mandal

b)    Garugubilli (KS39), Ravupalli (KS42) and Vullibhadra (KS44) in Garugubilli Mandal

 

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Received on 29.11.2020   Accepted on 19.12.2020              

©A&V Publications all right reserved

Research J. Engineering and Tech. 2020;11(4):178-186.

DOI: 10.5958/2321-581X.2020.00028.8