A Review on Network Security and Cryptography


Ms Vaishnavi B. Savant, Ms Rupali D. Kasar

Government Residential Women’s Polytechnic, Latur Maharashtra 413512.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: vaishnavisavant55813@gmail.com



Cryptography is the science of information security. Information security is the most extreme basic issue in guaranteeing safe transmission of data through the web. Also network security issues are now becoming important as society is moving towards digital information age. The word cryptography is derived from Greek kryptos, meaning concealed as more and more users connect to the internet it attracts a lot of cyber-attacks. Its required to protect computer and network security i.e. the critical issues. The pernicious hubs make an issue in the system. It can utilize the assets of different hubs and safeguard the assets of its own. In this paper we provide an overview on Network Security and various techniques through which Network Security can be enhanced i.e. Cryptography.


KEYWORDS: Network Security, Cryptography, Decryption, Encryption, Technology.




The fast development of the modern Internet technology and information technology cause the individual, enterprise, school and government department joining the Internet, Which cause more illegal users to attack and destroy the network by using the fake websites, fake mail, Trojan horse and backdoor virus at the same time. Target of the attacks and intrusion on the network are computers, so once the intruders succeed, it will cause thousands of network computers in a paralyzed state In addition, some invaders with ulterior motives look upon the military and government department as the target which cause enormous threats for the social and national security[1][2]. 


Cryptography is a “Hidden Secrets” is concerned with encryption. cryptography, the search or study of systems for secure correspondence. It is supportive for examining those conventions, that are recognized with different viewpoints in data security, for example, verification, classification of information, non-denial and information uprightness.


Figure-1: Crypto system


Cryptography is the science of writing in secret code. More generally, it is about constructing and analyzing protocols that block adversaries; various aspects in information security such as data confidentiality, data integrity, authentication, and non-repudiation are central to modern cryptography.

The testing issue is the way to successfully share scrambled information. Encode message with unequivocally secure key which is known just by sending and beneficiary end is a noteworthy perspective to get strong security in sensor organize. The safe trade of key amongst sender and recipient is a lot of troublesome errand in asset imperative sensor arrange. information ought to be scrambled first by clients before it is outsourced to a remote distributed storage benefit and both information security and information get to security ought to be ensured to such an extent that distributed storage specialist organizations have no capacities to unscramble the information, and when the client needs to pursuit a few sections of the entire information, the distributed storage framework will give the availability without recognizing what the segment of ten coded information came back to the client is about. This paper surveys different system security and cryptographic methodologies.



1. Network Security Model:

Figure demonstrates the model of system security. A message is to be exchanged starting with one gathering then onto the next over some kind of Internet administration. An outsider might be in charge of appropriating the mystery data to the sender and beneficiary while keeping it from any rival. While building up a safe system, the accompanying should be considered.

v Confidentiality: It is used to ensure that only the individuals who have the authority can be able to view a piece of information. Unauthorized individual cannot be able to view data for which they are not entitled to. It is nothing but the secrecy or concealment of information and resources.

v Integrity: It is related with generation and modification of data. Only the accredited individuals can be capable to build or change (or delete) information, data.

v Availability: Availability is used to make sure that information or the facts of the method is accessible for use when the authorized user wants or desire to access it.

v Accountability: It is the traceability of actions performed on a system to a specific system entity (like user, process, device).

v Non-Repudiation:  It is the ability to verify that a message has been sent and received are the same and that the sender can be identified and verified. This type of requirements is for online transactions.

v Reliability: It refers to the ability of a computer-related hardware or software component to consistently performs according to its specifications and procedures intended result.

v Authentication: Authorization is the process of determining the identity of a user or other entity by following three ways :

ü Something you know : username and password, only you should know your password.

ü Something you have : only those individuals with the correct key can be able to open the key.

ü Something about you : This method involves something that is unique about you like fingerprint, DNA samples, etc.

v Authorization: It is a process if verifying that a known person has the authority to perform a certain operation. Authorization cannot occur without authentication.


Fig-2: Cryptographic Model


Security perspectives become an integral factor when it is fundamental or alluring to shield the data transmission from a rival who may display a danger to classification, realness, etc.

What is Cryptography ?

Cryptography is the art and science making a cryptosystem that is able of providing information safety.

Cryptography deal with the actual secure of digital information, It refers to the design of device based on arithmetical algorithms that provide basic information security services. You can think of cryptography as the organization of a large toolkit contain different techniques in safety application.

Cryptography is a method of storing and transmitting data in a particular form so that only those for whom it is intended can read and process it.[3]


Components of a Cryptographic system:

The various mechanism of a basic cryptosystem are as follow-

Key : A key is a numeric or alpha numeric manuscript or may be a unique figure.

Plain Text : The confidential data that should be secured while transmission is referred as plain text.[4]

Cipher Text : The message that can't be comprehended by any one or an aimless message is the thing that we call as Cipher content. Assume, "Ajd672#@91ukl8*^5%" is a Cipher Text created for "Hi Friend how are you”. Ciphertext is otherwise called scrambled or encoded data since it contains a type of the first plaintext that is indistinguishable by a human or PC without the correct figure to unscramble it. Decoding, the backwards of encryption, is the way toward transforming ciphertext into meaningful plaintext. Ciphertext is not to be mistaken for code content in light of the fact that the last is an aftereffect of a code, not a figure. The plain text is converted to the unreadable form.[5]

Encryption : A procedure of changing over plain content into figure content is called as Encryption. This procedure requires two things-an encryption calculation and a key. Calculation implies the system that has been utilized as a part of encryption. Encryption of information happens at the sender side.

Decryption: A turn around procedure of encryption is called as Decryption. In this procedure Cipher content is changed over into Plain content. Decoding process requires two things-an unscrambling calculation and a key. Calculation implies the method that has been utilized as a part of Decryption. By and large the both calculations are same



There are commonly two types of techniques that are used for encrypt/decrypt the protected data like Asymmetric and Symmetric encryption technique. 

Symmetric Encryption:

If there should be an occurrence of Symmetric Encryption, same cryptography keys are utilized for encryption of plaintext and unscrambling of figure content. Symmetric key encryption is speedier and less difficult yet their principle downside is that both the clients need to move their keys security. A safe way of data transfer must be used to moving the secret key between the sender and the receiver in symmetric encryption. Symmetric key is also called as secret key. [6]


Fig-3: Symmetric Encryption


There is only one key used both for encryption and decryption of data.

Types of symmetric-key algorithms: 

Symmetric-key encryption can use either stream ciphers or block ciphers

1.     Stream Cipher : Clear byte operation at once. Bytes can be letters, numbers, or special characters. This process is inefficient and slow.

2.     Block Cipher :  Works on the readable text in blocks of bytes, called blocks(hence block name algorithm or block numbers).The general block size for modern algorithms is 64 bytes, small enough to work with but large enough to prevent code breakers.

The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) calculation endorsed by NIST in December 2001, and the GCM piece figure method of operation utilize 128-piece squares.


Asymmetric Encryption Asymmetric encryption uses two keys and also known as Public Key Cryptography, because user uses two keys: public key, which is known to public and a private key which is only known to user. Asymmetric encryption is slower and very complicated in calculations than symmetric encryption.


Fig.4: Asymmetric Encryption 


Asymmetric key Encryption, the diverse keys that are used for encryption and decryption of facts that is Public key and Private key. Asymmetric Cryptography is called as Public-key cryptography. Asymmetric encryption can be used for confidentiality, authentication, or both. [7]


Public key encryption in which message data is encrypted with a recipient’s public key. The Message can't be unscrambled by any individual who does not have the coordinating private key, who is dared to be proprietor of that key and the individual related with the general population key. This is an endeavor to guarantee privacy.


Digital Signature in which a message is signed with sender private key and can be verified by anyone who has access to the private key, and therefore is likely to ensure the security of the Network.


AES (Advanced Encryption Algorithm) AES is an iterated symmetric piece figure, which is portrayed as: working of AES is finished by rehashing a comparable sketched out strides different circumstances. AES can be a mystery key encryption calculation. AES works on foreordained bytes.


Effective Implementation of AES with the quick movement of computerized information trade in electronic route, in information stockpiling and transmission, data security is turning out to be a great deal more vital. An answer is available for cryptography which assumes a key part in data security framework against different assaults. A few calculations is utilized as a part of this security system uses to scramble information into confused content which can be just being decoded or unscrambled by gathering those has the related key. Two sorts of cryptographic strategies are being utilized: symmetric and hilter kilter. In this paper we have utilized symmetric cryptographic procedure AES (Advance encryption standard) [8] having 200 piece obstruct and additionally key size. What's more, the same routine 128 piece ordinary. Utilizing 5*5 Matrix AES calculation is executed for 200 piece. On executing, the proposed work is contrasted and 256 piece, 192 bits and 128 bits AES systems on two focuses. These focuses are encryption and unscrambling time and throughput at both encryption and decoding sides.[9] 


Open key encryption in which message is scrambled with a beneficiary's open key. The Message can't be unscrambled by any individual who does not have the coordinating private key, who is dared to be proprietor of that key and the individual related with general society key. This is an endeavor to guarantee classification.


Efficient Data Hiding By Using AES & Advance Hill Cipher Algorithm.

In this paper we propose an information concealing procedure utilizing AES calculation. The two prevalent methods for sending fundamental data furtively is Steganography and Cryptography. For making information secured cryptography was presented. Cryptography can't give a superior security approach in light of the fact that the mixed message is still accessible to the spy. A need of information covering up emerges. Along these lines, by joining the steganography and cryptography, the security can be progressed. numerous cryptography strategies are accessible here; among them AES is a standout amongst the most helpful procedures. In Cryptography, utilization of AES calculation to encode a message utilizing 128 piece key the message is concealed. In this proposed system, utilization of propel slope figure and AES to upgrade the security level which can be measured by some measuring variables. The outcome appeared by this work is propel half breed conspire gives preferred outcomes over past. AES algorithm is very secure technique for cryptography. [10]


In the following Table, Comparative study of various encryption algorithms on the basis of their ability to secure and protect data against attacks and speed of encryption and decryption 




In Steps Of


40 – 56 bits

8 bits

Triple – DES (two key)

64 – 112 bits

8 bits

Triple – DES (three key)

120 – 168 bits

8 bits




Diffie – Hellman

512 – 2048 bits

64 bits


512 – 2048 bits

64 bits





512 – 2048 bits

64 bits


512 – 2048 bits

64 bits

Fig-5: Comparison of various encryption algorithm



With the touchy development in the Internet, system and information security have turned into an unavoidable sympathy toward any association whose interior private system is associated with the Internet. The security for the information has turned out to be exceptionally vital. Client's information security is a focal question over cloud.


With more scientific instruments, cryptographic plans are getting more adaptable and regularly include numerous keys for a solitary application. Cryptography is one of the most important components to provide security to data communication between networks. It is used to protect data from unauthorized users. The paper displayed different plans which are utilized as a part of cryptography for Network security reason. Encode message with firmly secure key which is known just by sending and beneficiary end, is a huge angle to procure powerful security in cloud. The safe trade of key amongst sender and collector is an imperative errand. The key administration keeps up classification of mystery data from unapproved clients. It can likewise check the respectability of the traded message to confirm the genuineness. Arrange security covers the utilization of cryptographic calculations in system conventions and system applications. This paper quickly presents the idea of PC security, concentrates on the dangers of PC system security later on, work should be possible on key circulation and administration and also ideal cryptography calculation for information security over mists. [11]



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10.   N.Lalitha, P.Manimegalai, V.P.Muthu Kumar, M. Santha, “Efficient data hiding by using AES and advance Hill cipher algorithm”, International journal of research in computer applications and Robotics, volume 2, issue 1, January 2014.

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Received on 06.08.2021            Accepted on 26.09.2021

©A&V Publications all right reserved

Research J. Engineering and Tech. 2021;12(4):110-114.

DOI: 10.52711/2321-581X.2021.00019